“Pragmatism” is a philosophical school originating in the 1870s with the work of Charles Sanders Peirce. Its ideas were developed during the 1870s and eighteen80s. It first gained widespread attention in 1898, after James gave a series of public lectures on the subject. James and Peirce both used pragmatism as their term for their method, principle, and maxim.
The practical perspective looks beyond the literal meaning of a statement to the underlying’meaning construction’ and “implied meanings”. It examines the way in which language is used in interaction and argues that meanings are not limited to the’satellite’ meaning of the words spoken. It also emphasizes the power of language as an instrument of interaction. And while there are no absolute rules for how to use language, pragmatics provides a basis for all interactions in language. Without pragmatics, there would be little understanding of meaning.
One of the key contributors to this movement was the Metaphysical Club. This group of Harvard-educated men met for informal philosophical discussions in the early 1870s in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Members included future Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes and proto-positivist Chauncey Wright. Other notables in this tradition included philosophers such as Charles Sanders Peirce, theorist William James, and the psychologist and moralist C.I. Lewis.
While North American scholars have traditionally centered their research on pragmatism, vibrant networks have emerged in South America, Scandinavia, central Europe, and China. The academic field of pragmatism continues to grow internationally. Increasingly, academics in these areas are developing new ways of thinking and teaching. Its global reach is a positive sign for the future of this field. So, while the intellectual center of pragmatism is centered in North America, it is also spread globally.
When a speaker talks about a new car, a recent purchase, or a favorite TV show, the listener interprets this as an attempt to isolate him or her from the conversation. The listener will usually want to leave, and a speaker who doesn’t notice you will most likely be interpreted as an aggressive monopolizer of time. These two types of communication are fundamentally different. The speaker’s intention is to share information, while the listener’s interpretation of it is entirely dependent on social context.
Despite its name, “I have two sons” is not ambiguous in a sense. The speaker could have more than two sons – a different meaning might be implied based on the preceding question, “Do you have any daughters?”
A child with pragmatic language difficulties may struggle to communicate with others. While they may appear to be socially functioning, they may struggle to form close relationships, play team sports, and work in groups. They may even be passed over for a job opportunity because their charismatic peers have stronger social skills. However, pragmatic language difficulties are usually a symptom of a broader disorder. If you suspect that your child is displaying pragmatic language difficulties, consult a speech-language pathologist. In addition to assessing your child’s language, you can also suggest activities and experiences that will help strengthen pragmatic language skills.