Originally used in the late nineteenth century in the United States, the term pragmatism describes a philosophical movement that seeks to approach problems from a practical perspective. It is based on the idea that all language interactions involve the negotiation of meaning between the speaker and the listener, and that meaning is not simply a rational construct. In the modern world, pragmatism has also had significant influence in other fields such as social work, education, and law.
The origin of pragmatism can be traced back to the Harvard Metaphysical Club, which held informal philosophical discussions in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the early 1870s. The group included Harvard graduates such as Charles Sanders Peirce, W.V.O. Lewis, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, as well as a number of other men. These men were primarily concerned with the nature of truth. However, the group also included members of other philosophical traditions.
Peirce developed pragmatism ideas in the 1880s and 1890s. His clarification of truth, which offers a non-reductive alternative to the analytic conception of reality, consists of three aspects: the process of inquiry, the sensations underlying the truth, and the resulting convergence of opinion.
In the first generation of pragmatists, the focus was on inquiry and the nature of truth. The second generation of pragmatists expanded the philosophy to include politics and education. In the second half of the nineteenth century, these ideas were taken up by W.E.B. Du Bois, John Dewey, and Jane Addams. These three philosophers had a profound effect on American intellectual life for many years. In 1931, Addams received the Nobel Peace Prize for her contribution to social work.
After the rise of John Dewey, pragmatism lost its momentum, but it has recently begun to gain a foothold once again. A new generation of https://www.wallawallawatershed.org/ pragmatists, including Richard Rorty, has attacked representationalism. Others, such as Hilary Putnam, have sought to rehabilitate classical pragmatism. Other pragmatists, including Robert Brandom, have joined the neopragmatic movement, and some pragmatists have even criticized Rorty.
In the early twentieth century, John Dewey was an important influence on many of the most influential philosophers of the day. He was also a crucial figure in the development of the profession of social work. He also had a great impact on Jane Addams’ career, particularly her invention of the profession.
In the United States, pragmatism was initially influenced by the scientific revolution around evolution. However, it has also been influenced by the social sciences, particularly the work of George Herbert Mead, who developed pragmatist perspectives on community.
Another important figure in the pragmatist movement was William James, a psychologist and psychologist-turned-philosopher. He used pragmatism as a name for the maxim “The Principle of Practical Reason,” and as a name for the philosophy itself. James was also the author of a series of public lectures on pragmatism, which established the movement in the public eye.
The third major figure in the classical pragmatist pantheon was John Dewey. Dewey’s writings had a profound impact on American intellectual life for several decades. He influenced many philosophers, including Jane Addams, who invented the profession of social work. In 1907, he published a series of lectures on pragmatism. During this time, he identified a fundamental philosophical clash that has characterized the history of philosophy. He promised that pragmatism would bridge the gap.